Generation System of Seed Multiplication | Class of seed

Generation system of seed multiplication 

Generation system of seed multiplication is nothing but the production of a particular class of seed from specific class of seed up to certified seed stage. The choice of a proper seed multiplication model is the key to further success of a seed programme. This basically depends upon 

  •  The rate of genetic deterioration 
  •  Seed multiplication ratio and 
  •  Total seed demand 

Based on these factors different seed multiplication models may be derived for each crop and the seed multiplication agency should decide how quickly the farmers can be supplied with the seed of newly released varieties, after the nucleus seed stock has been handed over to the concerned agency, so that it may replace the old varieties. In view of the basic factors, the chain of seed multiplication models could be., 

a. Three - Generation model  

  •  Breeder seed - Foundation seed - Certified seed 

b. Four   - Generation model 

  •  Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I) Foundation seed (II) - Certified seed 

c. Five   - Generation model  

  • Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I)- Foundation seed (II) -Certified seed (I) - Certified seed (II) 

For most of the often cross pollinated and cross pollinated crops 3 & 4 generation models is usually suggested for seed multiplication. Ex: Castor, Redgram, Jute, Greengram, Rape, Mustard, Sesame, Sunflower and most of the vegetable crops. 

Classes Of Seed | Difference between certified seed and truthful labelled seed


The four generally recognized classes of seeds are: Breeder's seed, Foundation seed, Registered seed and Certified seed.  The Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies (AOSCA) has defined these seed classes as follows: 

Breeder seed  

The seed or vegetatively propagated material directly controlled by the originating or the sponsoring breeder or institution which is the basic seed for recurring increase of foundation seed. 

Foundation seed 

It is the progeny of breeder seed. The seed stock handled to maintain specific identity and genetic purity, which may be designated or distributed and produced under careful supervision of an agricultural experiment station. This seed is the source of all other certified seed classes either directly or through registered seed. 

Registered seed 

The progeny of the foundation seed so handled as to maintain its genetic identity and purity and approved and certified by a certifying agency.  It should be of quality suitable to produce certified seed. 

Certified seed  

It is the progeny of the foundation seed. Its production is so handled to maintain genetical identity and physical purity according to standards specified for the crop being certified. It should have the minimum genetical purity of 99%. Certified seed may be the progeny of certified seed , provided this reproduction does not exceed two generations beyond foundation  seed and provided that if certification agency determines the genetic and physical purity,  if  not be significantly altered. In case of highly self pollinated crops certification of one further generation may be permitted. Certified seed produced from certified seed shall be eligible for further seed increase under certification, except in case of highly self-pollinated crops, where certification of one further generation may be permitted. Certification tags issued once for certified seed not eligible for further seed increase under certification.  

  •  For paddy and wheat , certified seed produced from certified seed is eligible for certification by NSC up to two generations from foundation seed 

     Foundation seed - Certified seed (I) - Certified seed (II) 

  • For barley, garden pea ,ground nut, soyabean, certified seed produced from certified seed is eligible for certification up to 3 generations from foundation seed 

     Foundation seed - Certified seed (I) - Certified seed (II) - Certified seed (III) 

Certification of certified seed produced from certified seed is not permitted for crops other than those listed above.  

Seed Policy | National Seed Policy | Seed Act


 National Seed Policy, 2002 

  The Seed Act, 1966, seed control order 1983 and New Policy on Seeds Development, 1988, from the basis of promotion and regulation of the Indian Seed Industry. 

  The “New Seed Policy” of 1988 ushered in a new area of growth and phenomenal development. Because, it allowed limited import of commercial seed, remove curbs on imports of seeds of vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants and even allowed import of seed of course cereals, pulses and oilseeds for a period of two years.  

The important constraints were 

• Non existence of National Seed Policy  

• IPR laws 

• Restrictions and licenses on seed exports and imports 

• Lack of incentives for the public and private seed sectors of the country  

 India later developed the National Seed Policy in 2002. The main objectives are the provision of an appropriate climate for the seed industry to utilize available and prospective opportunities, safe guarding of the interests of Indian farmers and the conservation of agro-biodiversity. 

 Thrust Areas  

1. Varietal Development and PVP 

2. Seed Production  

3. Quality Assurance 

4. Seed Distribution and Marketing. 

5. Infrastructure facilities  

6. Transgenic Plant Varieties  

7. Import of seeds and planting material 

8. Export of seeds 

9. Promotion of Domestic Seed  

10. Strengthening of monitoring system 


1. Varietal Development and PVP 

  To stimulate investment in research and development (R&D) new varieties an effective sui generic system for IPR will be implemented. 

 • Establishment of PVPFRA (Plant Varieties Protection and Farmers Rights Authority, to implement PVPFR Act, 2001. 

• Under this Act, Plant Varieties will be registered based on Novelty, Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) characters. 

Farmers Rights: Farmers can save, use, exchange, share or sell seeds of protected variety but not under the brand name. 

Researchers Rights: Seed / planting material of protected varieties can be used for research and breeding new varieties.  

Breeders Rights: Benefit a rising out of use of varieties upon commercialization of seeds of new variety, will be shared with the respective breeder. 

Community Rights: Benefit sharing with Farmers / Village communities will be ensured for contributing in evaluation of plant variety upon registration. 

 2. Seed Production   

 India seed programme will adheres to generation system of multiplication namely nucleus, breeder, foundation and certified seed.  

  Public seed sector will be restructured and will continue to have free access to breeder seed, while Private Seed Sector will have conditional access. Seed village scheme will be facilitated to upgrade the quality of farmers saved seeds.  

 Seed Replacement will be raised progressively, National Seed Map will be prepared to identify potential areas of seed production, seed banks will be established with cold storage facilities, seed minikits will be supplied for popularizing new varieties and will Seed Crop Insurance will be encouraged. 

 3. Quality Assurance  

1. New Seed Act will be enacted. 

2. National Seed Board will be established as apex body in place of existing Central Seed Committee to implement New Seed Act. 

3. National Seeds Register will be maintained varieties will be registered based on “Value for Cultivation and Usage”. (VCU). 

4. Farmers will retain rights to save, use, exchange, share or sell seeds of any variety but not under the brand name. 

 4. Seed Distribution and Marketing

1. Seed Distribution and Marketing of any variety will be subject to registry in NSB. 

2. National Seed Grid will be established as a data base on seed   requirement, production, distribution and farmers preference. 

3. Access to finance from commercial banks will be facilitated. 

4. Availability of high quality seed will be ensured through improved   distribution system and efficient marketing set up.  

 5. Infrastructure facilities   

1. National Seed Research and Training center (NSRTC) will be set up. 

2. Seed processing and storage faculties will be augmented. 

3. Computerized National Seed Grid will be established to provide information on seeds marketing.  

6. Transgenic Plant Varieties  

1. All GM crops will be tested for environment and bio safety before commercial release as per EPA (1986). 

2. Seeds of GM crops will be imported only through NBPGR as per the EPA (1986). 

3. Required infrastructure will be developed for testing, identification and evaluation of transgenic planting material. 

 7. Import of seeds and planting material 

  Provision will be made to make available best planting material from anywhere in the world to Indian farmers without any compromise on quarantine requirements. 

8. Export of seeds 

 1. Long term policy will be evolved to exploit varied agro climatic condition of India and strong seed production system, to raise seed export from present level of less than 1% to 10% by 2020. 

2. Seed export promotion zones will be established and strengthened. 

3. Data Bank on International Market will be created. 

 9. Promotion of Domestic Seed Industry 

  It will be facilitated by providing incentives to domestic seed industry, financial support through NABARD, commercial and co-operative banks, considering tax rebate / concessions for R&D, reduction of import duty on machines and equipment used for seed production and encouragement of membership in National and International organization related to seed. 

 10. Strengthening of monitoring system  

  Strengthening of Department of Agriculture and Co-operation (DAC) will supervise the implementation of National Seed Policy. National Seed Policy will be vital in doubling food production of India 

India's record rice harvest poses fertile challenges for farmers

 Farmers in India are gathering in the largest rice crop in history, which promises record exports, while making sure to keep up their longest-running protest, set to turn a year old next month.

The sit-in against controversial agriculture reforms is taking place in the capital, miles away from the five acres (2 hectares) of lush green rice paddies tended by Sukrampal Beniwal in his village of Munak, in the northern state of Haryana.

"We'll not budge until the government rolls back the laws," he said, referring to three measures the farmers, demonstrating by the tens of thousands in New Delhi, say will threaten their livelihoods.
Farmers in the breadbasket state have joined hands to bring in the mammoth crop and make sure that every time a group sets off to harvest rice, a similar number leave to join the protest on the outskirts of New Delhi, Beniwal said.

"Because of our camaraderie, we have quite successfully dealt with the two competing challenges: managing the protest against legislation and harvesting a big crop," he added.

Introduced in September last year,the legislation deregulates the agriculture sector, letting farmers sell produce to buyers beyond government-regulated wholesale markets, where growers are assured of a minimum price.

While small farmers say the changes make them vulnerable to competition from big business, and threaten the eventual loss of price support, the government says the reforms will bring them new prospects and better prices

Yet, with global food prices near decade highs after a surge of 30% in rates for cereals over the past year, India's problem of plenty also offers a dazzling opportunity.

The new harvest will boost exports to help the South Asian nation cement its status as the dominant supplier of the world's most critical grain, traders say.

"Indian prices are very attractive at a time when demand is rather strong from many buyers, including China and a clutch of countries in Africa," said Aditya Garg, a leading exporter of the grain.

"In fact, for non-basmati rice, many Indian exporters have received orders from a lot of new buyers in Egypt, Sudan, Tanzania and Iran."

Coming at a time of flat output in traditional export powerhouses Vietnam and Thailand, the higher supply will let New Delhi offer more competitive rates to undercut any rivals.

Output of summer-sown rice in 2021/22 will hit a record 107.04 million tonnes, the farm ministry says, while combined output of summer and winter rice will hit 125 million, or about 24.5% of global rice output, its largest ever.

Coupled with upgraded export facilities, that volume will allow India to repeat, or even surpass, last year's record export tally of 20 million tonnes, filling growing demand for the staple from buyers across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.

India is elling 25% broken rice, a non-basmati variety preferred by most overseas buyers, at $345 a tonne on a free-on-board basis compared to $360 offered by Thailand, the world's second biggest rice exporter, dealers said, with some cargoes even sold at $320 a tonne.


Farming sustains almost half of India's population of nearly 1.4 billion and makes up about 15% of a $2.7-trillion economy.

Rice is India's biggest foreign exchange earning farm commodity, with shipment worth $8.82 billion in the fiscal year that ended in March 2021, government figures show.

Until two seasons ago, India's annual rice exports averaged about 11 million to 12 million tonnes.
But shipments soared to 20 million tonnes for a record share of 40.7% of global trade last season, data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) shows, after growing problems in Southeast Asia pushed up the prices of rivals to make Indian non-basmati shipments attractive to hungry global buyers.

"As climatic conditions helped our farmers raise the country's rice production, we've permanently become an even bigger player in the international market, and our share will grow," said trader Rajesh Paharia Jain at Unicorp Pvt Ltd.

In Munak, 130 km (80 miles) from New Delhi, the rice farmers showed no sign of relenting.

"Our record crop shows we are making India more than self-reliant in food, and the government shouldn't insist on laws that will spell doom for agriculture," said rice grower Ravindra Kajal.

The government is promoting 20 indigenous and internationally popular exotic fruit crops this year: Narendra Singh Tomar

 On Friday, Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar said the Center will promote the expansion of acreage and production of 10 types of exotic fruit trees of commercial importance and popularity in the world as well as many varieties. native fruit trees of high nutritional value this year. “This year, 8,951 hectares for exotic fruits and 7,154 hectares for indigenous fruits will be planted,” Tomar said at a conference to celebrate the "International Year of Fruits and Vegetables".

The state governments have been given targets for 2021-22 for area expansion of these crops, an official statement quoted Tomar having said at the event.

The event was organised by the Union Agriculture Ministry in collaboration with the UN body Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).

Tomar further said while India is the world's second largest producer of horticulture crops, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has stated that the country needs post harvest food processing revolution and value addition amid increased agri-production.

The Prime Minister has advocated for increased private sector participation along with research and development in the agriculture sector, he added India produces about 12 per cent of the global fruits and vegetable production. The country's horticulture production in 2020-21 was record 329.86 million tonnes, higher than 320.77 million tonnes in the previous year, he added.

The minister expressed hope that India can achieve the goal of bringing fruits and vegetables to the plate of the poorest of the poor, not as a special food but as a daily necessity.

Agriculture Secretary Sanjay Agarwal and FAO Representative in India Tomio Shichiri were among others present at the event.

Soil pH and Buffer pH |Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) | Soil Colloids

 Soil pH and Buffer pH 


Soil pH This is a measure of the soil acidity or alkalinity and is sometimes called the soil "water" pH. This is because it is a measure of the pH of the soil solution, which is considered the active pH that affects plant growth. 

Soil pH is the foundation of essentially all soil chemistry and nutrient reaction and should be the first consideration when evaluating a soil test. The total range of the pH scale is from 0 to 14. Values below the mid-point (pH 7.0) are acidic and those above pH 7.0 are alkaline. A soil pH of 7.0 is considered to be neutral. 

Most plants perform best in a soil that is slightly acid to neutral (pH 6.0 to 7.0). Some plants like blueberries require the soil to be more acid (pH 4.5 to 5.5), and others, like alfalfa will tolerate a slightly alkaline soil (pH 7.0-7.5). 

The soil pH scale is logarithmic, meaning that each whole number is a factor of 10 larger or smaller than the ones next to it. For example if a soil has a pH of 6.5 and this pH is lowered to pH 5.5, the acid content of that soil is increased 10-fold. If the pH is lowered further to pH 4.5, the acid content becomes 100 times greater than at pH 6.5. The logarithmic nature of the pH scale means that small changes in a soil pH can have large effects on nutrient availability and plant growth. 

Buffer pH (BpH): 

This is a value that is generated in the laboratory, it is not an existing feature of the soil. Laboratories perform this test in order to develop lime recommendations, and it actually has no other practical value.  

In basic terms, the BpH is the resulting sample pH after the laboratory has added a liming material. In this test, the laboratory adds a chemical mixture called a buffering solution. This solution functions like extremely fast-acting lime. Each soil sample receives the same amount of buffering solution; therefore the resulting pH is different for each sample. To determine a lime recommendation, the laboratory looks at the difference between the original soil pH and the ending pH after the buffering solution has reacted with the soil. If the difference between the two pH measurements is large, it means that the soil pH is easily changed, and a low rate of lime will suffice. If the soil pH changes only a little after the buffering solution has reacted, it means that the soil pH is difficult to change and a larger lime addition is needed to reach the desired pH for the crop.  

The reasons that a soil may require differing amounts of lime to change the soil pH relates to the soil CEC and the "reserve" acidity that is contained by the soil. Soil acidity is controlled by the amount of hydrogen (H+) and aluminum (Al+++) that is either contained in, or generated by the soil and soil components. Soils with a high CEC have a greater capacity to contain or generate these sources of acidity. Therefore, at a given soil pH, a soil with a higher CEC (thus a lower buffer pH) will normally require more lime to reach a given target pH than a soil with a lower CEC. 

Soil Colloids  

During physical and chemical weathering processes in which rocks, minerals, and organic matter decompose to form soil, some extremely small particles are formed. Colloidal-sized particles are so minuscule that they do not settle out when in suspension. These particles generally possess a negative charge, which allows them to attract positively charged ions known as cations. Much like a magnet, in which opposite poles attract one another, soil colloids attract and retain many plant nutrients in an exchangeable form. This ability, known as cation exchange capacity, enables a soil to attract and retain positively charged nutrients (cations) such as potassium (K+), ammonium (NH4+), hydrogen (H+), calcium (Ca++), and magnesium (Mg++). Also, because similar charges repel one another, some of the soluble negatively charged ions (anions), such as nitrate (NO3-) and sulfate (SO4=), are not bonded to soil colloids and are more easily leached than their positively charged counterparts.  

Organic colloids contribute a relatively large number of negative charges per unit weight compared with the various types of clay colloids. The magnitude of the soil's electrical charge contributed by colloids is an important component of a soil's ability to retain cationic nutrients in a form available to plants.  

Cation Exchange Capacity  

The ability of a soil to retain cations (positively charged ions) in a form that is available to plants is known as cation exchange capacity (CEC). A soil's CEC depends on the amount and kind(s) of colloid(s) present. Although type of clay is important, in general, the more clay or organic matter present, the higher the CEC.  

The CEC of a soil might be compared to the size of a fuel tank on a gasoline engine. The larger the fuel tank, the longer the engine can operate and the more work it can do before a refill is necessary. For soils, the larger the CEC, the more nutrients the soil can supply. Although CEC is only one component of soil fertility, all other factors being equal, the higher the CEC, the higher the potential yield of that soil before nutrients must be replenished with fertilizers or manures.  

When a soil is tested for CEC, the results are expressed in milliequivalents per 100 grams (meq/100 g) of air-dried soil. For practical purposes, the relative numerical size of the CEC is more important than trying to understand the technical meaning of the units. In general, soils in the southern United States, where physical and chemical weathering have been more intense, have lower CEC's (1-3 meq/100 g) than soils in the northern United States, where higher CEC's are common (15-25 meq/100 g) because weathering has not been as intense. Soils in warmer climates also tend to have lower organic matter levels, and thus lower CEC's than their northern counterparts.  

Soils high in clay content, and especially those high in organic matter, tend to have higher CEC's than those low in clay and organic matter. The CEC of soils in Maryland generally ranges from 1-2 meq/100 g for coarse-textured Coastal Plain 

soils to as high as 12-15 meq/100 g for certain Piedmont and Mountain soils. The CEC of most medium-textured soils of the Piedmont region ranges about 8-12 meq/100 g.  

There are many practical differences between soils having widely different CEC's. It has already been mentioned that the inherent fertility (exchangeable nutrient content) of soils varies in direct relationship to the magnitude of the CEC. Another important CEC-related property is soil buffering capacity, that is, the resistance of a soil to changes in pH. The higher the CEC, the more resistance soil has to changes in pH. The CEC and buffering capacity are directly related to the amount of liming material required to produce a desired change in pH. Higher CEC soils require more lime than those with low CEC's to achieve the same pH change. 

If CEC is analogous to the fuel tank on an engine, soil pH is analogous to the fuel gauge. The gauges on both a large and a small tank might read three fourths full; but, obviously, the larger tank will contain more fuel than the smaller tank. If a soil test indicates that two soils, one with a low CEC and the other with a high CEC, have the same low pH, indicating that they both need lime, the one with the higher CEC will require more liming material to bring about the desired pH change than will the one with the lower CEC. The reason for this difference is that there will be more exchangeable acidity (hydrogen and aluminum) to neutralize in the high CEC soil than in the lower CEC soil. Thus, a soil high in clay or organic matter will require more liming material to reduce soil acidity (and raise the pH) than a low organic matter sandy soil will.  

Public Finance | Public Revenue - Public Expenditure | Taxation - Principles of Taxation | International Trade


Public finance deals with the rising up of revenue and incurring expenditure by the public authorities. Dalton defines public finance as the science that is concerned with the income and expenditure of public authorities and the adjustment of one to the other. The basic role of public authorities is to mobilize resources through taxes, loans, etc. and utilize these resources for accelerating economic growth and also for bringing about the desired redistribution of income and wealth in the country. 

i) Public Revenue  Public revenue is the income of the Government (central Government, state Government and local bodies).

 Government revenue can be classified into

(a) tax revenue, and 

(b) non-tax revenue. 

a) Tax Revenue: Taxes are compulsory contribution levied by the state for  meeting expenses in the common interests of all citizens. 

Tax revenue can be classified into: 

(1) direct taxes and 

(2) indirect taxes. 

1. Direct Taxes: A tax is said to be direct, if the tax payer bears the burden of the tax. He cannot shift the burden to any other person. E.g. income tax, wealth tax and gift tax.  


 i) It varies according to the ability to pay and  

 ii) Cost of tax collection is low. 


i) Tax rates are fixed arbitrarily by the government and  

ii) There is a possibility of tax evasion. 

2. Indirect Taxes: Indirect tax is shifted by the payer to others. If sales tax is imposed on sugar, the producer or dealer who pays it passes it on to the next buyer and ultimately the burden is borne by the consumer. E.g. Sales tax 


 i) It is more convenient, i.e., those who consume the commodity alone need to pay the tax.

 ii) No tax evasion is possible.


 i) Every consumer, rich or poor, pays the tax at the same rate.   

ii) Cost of tax collection is very high.  

3. Customs duties: This refers to imposing of import or export duties on goods coming into or going out of the country respectively. The importers or exporters who pay such duties would shift the burden of the tax on the consumers. A duty is said to be Specific when it is imposed according to a standard of weight or measurement, E.g. 50 paise per metre of cloth or one rupee per 40 kg of wheat etc. The duty is called ad valorem, when it is imposed according to value of the commodity. E.g. 100 per cent on the value of motor cars or television sets.

 b) Non-Tax Revenue  

It includes receipts such as fees for education and public health, fines, profits from public sector undertakings, income from public lands, forest, mines, etc. The central government also receives interest on loans from state governments.

 1.Fee: It is a compulsory contribution made by those who obtain a definite service in return, E.g. Tuition fee, court fee, etc. In short, fee is charged for a specific service that is rendered primarily in public interest. 

 2. A license fee, however, is much more than the cost of service and there is not much of a positive service in return. 

3. Fine: The court can impose fines for any default or irregularity or violation of law. 

4 Price: A price is paid by an individual for a specific service rendered to him by the state. Many public sector undertakings realize revenue from the sale of their goods and services, E.g. Sale of petrol, traveling charges in railways, etc. The main characteristic of price is that it is a payment made by those who want to use that particular service. A fee is collected in the public interest where as a price is the payment for a service of business character. A tax is paid for a common benefit whereas fees and prices are paid for specific benefits. 

5.Grant: They are given by a higher-level institution to a lower level institution. E.g. Central Government provides grants to state Government. 

6.Gift: They are received from either government or private institutions or individuals. Gifts are also received from foreign governments. 

c) Social and Economic Objectives of taxation are: 
i) Reduction of inequalities in income and wealth. 
ii) Increasing economic growth. 
iii) Stabilization of prices. 

d) Methods of Taxation: 

  • Taxes may be proportional, progressive, regressive and digressive. 

1) Proportional Taxation: Whatever be the size of income, same rate or same percentage of tax is charged. The tax rate remains same, but the tax amount increases as the person’s income increases. If the tax is levied at 10 per cent on income, a person who earns Rs.1,00,00 a year, will pay Rs.10,000 as tax, while a person who gets Rs.50,000 per year will pay Rs.5,000 as tax.

 2) Progressive Taxation: In this case, the rate of tax increases with the increase in income. If a person earns Rs.50,000 per annum, he will pay a tax of 10 percent, i.e., Rs.5,000, while a person whose income is Rs.1,00,000 per year will pay a tax of 15 per cent. i.e. Rs.15,000. 

3) Regressive Taxation: It is quite opposite of the progressive taxation. It implies higher rates of tax for lower income groups and lower rates of tax for higher income groups. 

4) Digressive Taxation: A tax may be at a progressive rate upto a certain limit or level of income, beyond which a uniform rate is charged.  

e) Canons of Taxation:  The characteristics or qualities, which a good taxation should possess, are described as canons of taxation. 

Adam Smith has given the following four canons of taxation:  

1) Canon of equality: The amount of tax must be in proportion to the ability of the tax payer, i.e., progressive taxation should be followed.  

2) Canon of certainty: The time of payment, the manner of payment, and the quantity to be paid should be made clear to the tax payer well in advance and arbitrary fixation of taxes should not be there.

3) Canon of convenience: Tax payment should be made convenient to the tax payer. The time of payment and the manner of payment should be made convenient to the tax payer. Land revenue can be paid in installments after the harvest of crops. 

4) Canon of Economy: Cost of tax collection should be very low. Cost of tax collection should be a small portion of the actual amount of tax collected. 

f) Other canons of Taxation:

5) Canon of Productivity: A few taxes, which bring larger revenue, are better than many taxes which bring a very small revenue. 

6) Canon of Elasticity: As needs of the state increase, the revenue should also increase. Some of the taxes should be capable of yielding more revenue when financial resources are needed very urgently to the Government, E.g. Income tax. 

7) Canon of Simplicity and Flexibility: Tax system should be very easy to understand and it should be adjusted to new economic conditions.

ii) Public Expenditure  The expenditure incurred by public authorities is called public expenditure. Public expenditure has to provide not only social welfare but it has also to ensure economic stability and economic growth. 

a) Canons of Public Expenditure: The following are the rules or canons that should guide the public authorities in the administration of public expenditure. 

1) Canon of Maximum Benefit: Public expenditure should promote the maximum welfare of the society as a whole. 

2) Canon of Economy: Unnecessary expenditure and wastage of financial resources should be avoided. 

3) Canon of Sanction: The public expenditure has to be sanctioned by a competent authority before it is actually incurred. 

4) Canon of Elasticity: It should be possible to the government to vary the expenditure according to the need or circumstances. 

5) Canon of Surplus: Public expenditure should be always kept well within the revenue of the state so that a surplus is left at the end of the year. Government should avoid deficit budget in which public revenue is less than the public expenditure.  

6) Promotion of Economic Growth and Stability: Public expenditure should promote economic development and economic stability directly and indirectly. 


International Trade arises simply because countries differ in their demand for goods and in their ability to produce them.  On the demand side a country may be able to produce a particular good but not in the quantity it requires.  For example the crude oil production in India is less than the demand.  In contrast, in gulf countries crude oil production is more than their demand.  On the supply side, resources are not evenly distributed throughout the world.  One country may have an abundance of land; another may have skilled labour force.   These factors cannot be transferred easily from one country to another.  Because these factors are difficult to shift, the alternative, i.e., moving goods made by those factors is adopted.  If the terms of trade are appropriate, a country can specialize in producing those goods in which they have the greatest comparative advantage, exchange them for the goods they require from other countries.  Thus, international trade arises. International Trade enables countries to obtain the benefits of specialization of other countries and improves the standard of living for all.  It is obvious that, without international trade, many countries would have to go without certain products. By expanding the market, international trade enables many countries to go in for large-scale production. International trade increases competition and thereby promotes efficiency in production. 

i) Balance of Payment: The Balance of Payment (BOP) is a comprehensive record of economic transactions of the residents of a country with the rest of the world during a given period of time. The aim is to present an account of all receipts from goods exported, services rendered and capital received by residents of a country, and payments for goods imported, services received and capital transferred by residents of the country. 

ii) Balance of Trade (BOT)  The difference between the value of commodities exported and value of commodities imported is known as the balance of trade. The main purpose of keeping these records (balance of payments and balance of trade) is to inform Government of the international economic position of the country and to help it in reaching decisions on the monetary and fiscal policies on the one hand, and trade and payment related matters on the other. 

Vermicompost |Vermiculture | Types of Earthworms | Mechanism of vermicomposting |Vermitechnology

Vermicompost :Soil fauna including protozoa to mammals though not considered major is the important source of nutrients. Among the soil fauna earthworms have attracted more attention than others because of their importance in agriculture. 

Earthworm gut is the site of production of genuine humic acids which are distinct from the polysaccharide-gum humic acids. About half of the gums secreted by earthworm are in form of mucoproteins that help stabilizing pore space distribution. The earthworm soil casts are richer in available plant nutrients (nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and P) and organic matter. The earthworms through their casts and dead tissues supply about 60-90 kg N to the soil. Earthworm eats on fungal mycelia. Earthworms convert farm waste and organic residues into high quality compost. For this, Eiseniafoetida, Perionyxexacavatus, Eudrilluseuginiae and Lumbriusrubellus are important. These species can be cultured on organic wastes and dung. The technique of culturing them is called vermiculture and using these for decomposing residue to make compost is called vermicomposting. 

About 1000 adult earthworms can convert 5 kg waste into compost per day. The earthworm assimilate 5-10% of the substrate and rest passes through the alimentary canal and is excreted as cast. Earthworm cast contains nutrients, vitamins, hormones and antibiotics.  

Vermi-compost is a stable fine granular organic matter, when added to clay soil loosens the soil and provides the passage for the entry of air. he multifarious effects of vermicompost influence the growth and yield of crops.  

Definition of vermicomposting: 

Vermicomposting is a method of making compost, with the use of earthworms, which generally live in soil, eat biomass and excrete it in digested form. This compost is generally called vermicompost or Wormicompost. 

Definition of Vermiculture: 

Vermiculture means scientific method of breeding and raising earthworms in controlled conditions. 


 Vermitechnology is the combination of vermiculture and vermicomposting. Thus, earthworms can be used in the following areas. 

1. For development of arable soils, turnover of soil, break down of plant organic matter aeration and drainage 

2. For production of useful products like vermifertilizer and worm tissue for animal feed. 

3. For maintenance of environmental quality and monitor of the environment for soil fertility, organic and heavy metal non-biodegradable toxic material pollution.   

Types of Earthworm :

Types of earthworms in vermicomposting Earthworms belong to phyllum Annelida of Animal Kingdom. They are long and cylindrical in shape and size having a large number of grooves. There are about 3000 species of earthworms in the world which are adapted to a range of environment. More than 300 species have been identified in India. Although, hermophrodite, two mature earthworms are required to propagate. At the time of egg laying, the clitellum is transformed into hard, girdle like capsule called cocoon. Shedding of cocoon ranges from 1 to 5, only a few of them survive and hatch. The juveniles and again formation of cocoons takes a period of 50-60 days. Normally, the average life span of earthworms varies with species ranging from 1 to 10 years.   

Epigeics (surface feeders) are important in vermicomposting. 

The epigeics such as Eiseniafoetida and Eudriluseugeniae are exotic worms and Perionyxexcavatus is a native one being used for vermicomposting in India. Epianecic are feeders on leaf litter and soil at upper layers of soil. This group such as Lampitomauritii is indegenous and is active in in-situ decomposition of organic wastes and residues in soil. Both epigeics and epianecics groups of earthworms areslender, shorter in length and red to dark brown in colour. They have high reproduction activityand efficient in recycling of organic materials. Increased attention has been paid to Eiseniafoetida and Eudriluseugeniae which have been found to be potential agent in vermicomposting of wide range of agricultural wastes and can grow at a wide range of temperature varying from 0-40 ◦C. However, the optimum temperature ranges from 20-30 ◦C.   

Mechanisum of Vermicomposting: 

Mechanism of vermicomposting Materials consumed by worms undergo physical breakdown in the gizzard resulting in particles < 2 µ, giving thereby an enhanced surface area for microbial processing. This finally ground material is exposed to various enzymes such as protease, lipase, amylase, cellulase and chitinase secreted into lumen by the gut wall and associated microbes. These enzymes breakdown complex biomolecules into simple compounds. Only 5-10% of the ingested material is abosrbed into the tissues of worms for their growth and rest is excreted as cast. Mucus secretions of gut wall add to the structural stability of vermicompost.   

Vermiculture industry or vermicompost preparation: 

1. Basic raw material: Any organic material generated in the farm like bhusa, leaf fall etc., Horse dung, due to the risk of Tetanus virus, lethal to human beings is not advisable to be used as feeding material for earthworms. Paddy husk, merigold and pine needles have also advised to be used as feeding materials for earthworms. 

2. Starter: Cow dung , Biogas slurry, or urine of cattle 

3. Soil animal: Earth worms (Species: Eiseniafoetida) 

4. Thatched roof/vermished.   

Favourable conditions of earth worms in the composting material:

A.pH: Range between 6.5 and 7.5 

B. Moisture: 60-70% of the moisture below and above range mortality of worms taking place 

C. Aeration: 50% aeration from the total pore space 

D. Temperature: Range between 18 0C to 35 0C   

Procedure It is mostly prepared in either pit or heap method. 

The dimensions either heap or pit are 10 x 4 x 2 feet. The length and width can be increased or decreased depending on the availability of material but not the depth because the earthworms’ activity is confined to 2 feet depth only. First of all select a site which is not under any economic use and is shady and there is no water stagnation. The site should also be nearby to water source. 

1st layer: bedding material of 1" thick with soft leaves 

2nd layer: 9" thick organic residue layer finely chaffed material 

3rd layer: Dung + water equal mixture of 2" layer. Continue the layer up to pile to ground level in the case of pit method and upto 2ʹ in heap or surface bed method. Protect the worms against natural enemies like ants, lizards, snakes, frogs, toads etc., Maintain proper moisture and temperature by turnings and subsequent staking. At the day of 24th, 4000 worms are introduced in to the pit [1m2 =2000 worms] without disturbing the pit by regular watering the entire raw material will be turned into the vermicompost in the form of worm excreta. The turnover of the compost is 75% [the total material accommodated in the pit is 1000 kg; the out turn will be 750 kg]   

Harvesting of the vermicompost: 

Harvesting of the vermicompost from the pit Stop watering before one week of harvest. Sometimes the worms spread across the pit come in close and penetrate each other in the form of ball in 2 or 3 locations. Heap the compost by removing the balls and place them in a bucket. However, under most instances, top layer has to be disturbed manually. Earthworms move downward and compost is separated. After collection of compost from top layers, feed material is again replenished and composting process is rescheduled. The material is sieved in 2 mm sieve, the material passed through the sieve is called as vermicompost which is stored in a polythene bags  


1. Do not cover vermicompost beds/heaps with plastic sheets because it may trap heat and gases. 

2. Do not overload the vermicompost heap to avoid high temperature that adversely affect their population. 

3. Dry conditions kill the worms and waterlogging drive them away. Watering should be done daily in summer and every third day in rainy and winter season. 4. Addition of higher quantities of acid rich substances such as tomatoes and citrus wastes should be avoided. 

5. Make a drainage channel around the heap to avoid stagnation of water particularly in high rainfall areas in rainy season. 

6. Organic materials used for composting should be free from non-degradable materials such as stones, glass pieces, plastics, ceramic tubes/bulbs etc.   

Natural enemies and their control:

 The important natual enemies of vermiculture are ants, termites, centipedes, rats, pigs, birds etc. Preventive measures include treating of the site with chlorpyriphos 20 EC at 2 ml/l  or 4% neem based insecticide before filling the heap.   

Transportation of live worms: 

Live earthworms can be packed with moist feed substrate in a container (card board/plastic) with provision of aeration. Feed substrate quantity should be roughly 0.5-1.5 g/individual for 24 hours of transportation journey. Culture should contain cocoon, juveniles and adults because sometimes adults do not acclimatize to new environment and may even die. Under such circumstances cocoons are helpful for population build up of earthworms.   

Conversion rates: 

  • 1000 earth worms may convert 5 kg waste material per day 1000 worms weighs about a kilogram   

Advantages of composting over direct application:

 1. There will be no immobilization in compost because of narrow C:N ratio 

2. Application is easy, because the compost is humified and have a structure of crumb and granular. 

3. It is hygienic, pathogens and weeds seeds are destroyed.   

 The rate of application is as Field crops 5-6 t/ha; vegetables 10-12 t/ha; flower plants 100200 g/sqft; fruit trees 5-10 kg/tree. 

Advantage of vermicompost 

1. Vermicompost is a rich source of nutrients, vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics and growth hormones. So it gives disease resistance to plansts. Nutrient content of vermicompost is higher than traditional composts. It is a valuable soil amendment.  

2. Vermicompost harbours certain microbial populations that help in N fixation and P solubilisation. Its application enhances nodulation in legumes and symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with the roots. 

3. Superiority of vermicompost over other synthetic growth media is more pronounced in plant nurseries. It can be used as rooting medium and for establishment of saplings in nurseries.  

4. It improves taste, lusture and keeping quality of the produce.  

5. It has immobilized enzymes like protease, lipase, amylase, cellulase and chitinese which keep on their function of biodegradation of agricultural residues in the soil so that further microbial attack is speeded up.  

6. It does not emanate foul odour as is associated with manures and decaying organic wastes   

Weather Modifications | Artificial Rain Making and Cloud Seeding

 Weather Modification:

Weather modification refers to willful manipulation of the climate or local weather. Research done in this field goes back to as far as the early 1940s when the US military experimented with cloud seeding to stimulate rain. Today, private corporations have joined the weather modification research effort to protect people, cities and assets from the damage extreme weather brings. 

Principles of rainmaking Clouds are classified into warm and cold clouds based on cloud top temperature.

If the cloud temperature is positive these clouds are called warm clouds and if it is negative they are called as cold clouds. The nucleus needed for precipitation differs with type of clouds. 

Hygroscopic materials are necessary as nucleus for warm clouds History of Cloud Seeding  Cloud seeding experiments started with the work of a scientist from General Electric named Vincent Schaefer who discovered that ice crystals can induce precipitation. Since ice crystals are difficult to transport and spread over an area, silver iodide, a compound with similar properties, was used as a substitute. The experiments continued until the 1970's when the program was shelved because of lack of usable results. 

Cloud seeding:

 Cloud seeding is one of the tools to mitigate the effects of drought. It is defined as a process in which the precipitation is encouraged by injecting artificial condensation nuclei through aircrafts or suitable mechanism to induce rain from rain bearing cloud. 

The raindrops are several times heavier than cloud droplets. These mechanisms are different for cold and warm clouds. 

How it Works  Cloud seeding involves the use of water-absorbent materials to encourage the formation of clouds and rain so that there could be increased crop production in areas where there's little water. This practice has already been implemented in some areas like Texas and Utah, though not without its share of controversies. 

The effectiveness of cloud seeding cannot be proven and some worry that it may actually cause harm. Cloud seeding useful in the following applications Increasing Precipitation  The most common application of cloud seeding is to increase precipitation, possible with both warm and cold clouds. There are two primary methods employed to stimulate precipitation. One, hygroscopic seeding, affects warm cloud processes. The other, glaciogenic seeding initiates cold cloud processes. 

 Though occasionally both techniques may be helpful, in most cases one can be utilized more effectively than the other. In addition, either technology can be applied from the surface (ground-based) or from an aircraft. Weather Modification, Inc. can help you decide which method will be most effective. Augmenting Snowfall  Glaciogenic seeding can also be used to increase precipitation from stratiform and orographic clouds. In such cases, seeding may be accomplished through either ground-based or airborne modes. By increasing snowpack and resultant spring runoff, subsequent water supplies for hydropower are increased. In addition to alleviating the need for alternative costly power supplies, cloud seeding increases the water availability for municipal, recreational, and environmental interests. Enhancing Rainfall  Efforts to increase rainfall during the warm seasons are typically aimed at convective clouds. While it is theoretically possible to seed such clouds using ground based equipment, targeting from aircraft is much more efficient and accurate. It is usually possible to affect the cloud through releases of a seeding agent in sub-cloud updrafts, or by dropping the seeding agents directly into the upper regions of the clouds. 

Warm season glaciogenic seeding is typically applied to treat supercooled cumulus congestus clouds, either by releasing the ice-forming (nucleating) seeding agent in the updraft beneath the actively-growing cumulus, or by dropping the nucleating agent directly into the supercooled cloud top. The seeding agents can produce ice at significantly warmer temperatures than the natural process. This is how glaciogenic seeding gives the treated cloud a head start in producing precipitation.  

 When clouds do not grow tall and cold enough to produce precipitation through the Bergeron process, it may be possible to stimulate precipitation growth by seeding these warm clouds with hygroscopic seeding agents. This approach can be quite successful through stimulation of the warm cloud precipitation processes. Hygroscopic seeding is normally done from aircraft flying in the sub-cloud updrafts, in order to affect the initial cloud droplet development which occurs in this zone. Mitigating Hail Damage  Cloud seeding can be used as a tool to help mitigate hail damage and protect crop yields, homes and other property, thus reducing the economic harm from disastrous storm damage. Since hail is itself ice that is produced only by vigorous convective clouds, it is certain that such clouds are cold enough to be amenable to glaciogenic seeding techniques. Hail develops when excess supercooled liquid water develops within strong updrafts. However, if the excess might be induced to freeze into large numbers of small particles rather than much smaller numbers of large particles, the ice that does precipitate may melt during its transit through the warm sub-cloud layer, or if it doesn't it will reach the surface as much smaller, less-damaging, ice. Dispersing Fog  Another useful application for cloud seeding is the treatment of ground-based clouds, also known as fog. Supercooled fogs, comprised of water droplets at temperatures cold enough to permit ice development, can easily be cleared by glaciogenic seeding. This can be done either from the ground or from airborne application. Your choice between the two will depend on characteristics such as local infrastructure, topography, and wind. Seeding of cold clouds  

This can be achieved by two ways 

1. Dry ice seeding and

2. Silver Iodide seeding

1. Dry ice seeding 

• Dry ice (solid carbon-dioxide) has certain specific features. It remains as it is at   –80oC and evaporates, but does not melt. Dry ice is heavy and falls rapidly from top of cloud and has no persistent effects due to cloud seeding. 

• Aircrafts are commonly used for cloud seeding with dry ice. 

• Aircraft flies across the top of a cloud and 0.5 – 1.0 cm dry ice pellets are released in a steady stream. 

• While falling through the cloud a sheet of ice crystals is formed. 

• From these ice crystals rain occurs. 

• This method is not economical as 250 kg of dry ice is required for seeding one cloud. To carry the heavy dry ice over the top of clouds special aircrafts are required, which is an expensive process.

 2. Silver Iodide seeding 

Minute crystals of silver iodide produced in the form of smoke acts as efficient ice-farming nuclei at temperatures below –5ーC. When these nuclei are produced from the ground generators, these particles are fine enough to diffuse with air currents. 

Silver iodide is the most effective nucleating substance because; its atomic arrangement is similar to that of ice. The time for silver iodide smoke released from ground generator to reach the super cooled clouds was offer some hours, during which it would draft a long way and decay under the sun light. The appropriate procedure for seeding cold clouds  would be to release silver iodide smoke into super cooled cloud from an aircraft. In seeding cold clouds silver iodide technique is more useful than dry ice techniques, because, very much less of silver iodide is required per cloud. There is no necessity to fly to the top of the cloud, if area to be covered is large.

 Seeding of warm clouds 

1) Water drop Technique Coalescence process is mainly responsible for growth of rain drops in warm cloud. The basic assumption is that the presence of comparatively large water droplets is necessary to initiate the coalescence process. So, water droplets or large hygroscopic nuclei are introduced in to the cloud. Water drops of 25 mm are sprayed from aircraft at the rate of 30 gallons per seeding on warm clouds. 

2) Common salt technique Common salt is a suitable seeding material for seeding warm clouds. It is used either in the form of 10 per cent solution or solid. A mixture of salt and soap avoid practical problems. The spraying is done by power sprayers and air compressors or even from ground generators. The balloon burst technique is also beneficial. In this case gunpowder and sodium chloride are arranged to explode near cloud base dispersing salt particles.